Tomato wine, tiger milk, and mini macadamias: Crops to mitigate water declines in future drought-striken areas

Everyone only eats the bits they find tasty and culturally acceptable but that doesn’t mean the rest goes to waste. Products derived from pigs are included in everything from beer to brushes to therapeutic drugs. Search for Pig 05049 by Christien Meindertsma or watch her TED Talk video -

Chicken wings are very popular in North America. They definitely aren’t unwanted.


Most of the pig is eaten, all the skeletal muscles, full heads are sold, liver, heart and similar stuff is used as dog/cat food but eadible for humans too of course, tails are eaten in some areas of the world, hooves with part of bones are used for aspic, fat of course used for salo.


It’s a native species that gets onto noxious weed lists because it is difficult to eradicate from agricultural land. Of course, if it’s the crop, being highly presistent on agricultural lands becomes a desirable feature!


Cyperus esculentus is clearly not native to the US states that have them on their noxious weed lists, and it is clearly not native to much of the US. in some states, there may be a mix of native and non-native subspecies. as i noted earlier:

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Knowing the usual attitude, it could easily be the other way around: it became “nonnative” when it was deemed a weed.

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Is it even native to any part of it? I see Wiki says it’s native to N Africa and Mediterranean, nothing about NA.

OK, you first.

some sources say native only in the areas you note. some say that it’s native in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. even when you go with with the latter interpretation, what i said in my last post still holds, as far as i can tell.

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Nope. :-)

Off the top of my head, I know the state noxious weed acts of Arizona and California allow both native and non-native plants to be listed as noxious weeds. Also, the noxious weed act of New Mexico says noxious weeds have to be non-native, but in the past there have been native plants on the noxious weed list. The people adding or removing plants from these lists are not necessarily more knowledgeable than you or I, and they certainly make mistakes.

There is also a bias toward inferring a “weedy” plant is not native. I’ve made that mistake myself! We absolutely have native plants that are adapted to disturbance and can be obnoxious in particular contexts.

I live in a city in south america, in the sierras, here folks cook entire pigs, either roasted whole: chancho al barbosa, or fried in tallow: fritada.

It’s kindof a running joke how much pork is served in Cuenca, nearly all of the classic dishes of Cuencano cuisine are pork based.


Then why is silver leaf nightshade on the ABQ weed ordinance list? Not the same rules at the local level?

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Yeah, I assume the local weed ordinance is completely independent. Solanum elaeagnifolium used to be on the state list, I assume it got dropped once they realized it was native.

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just to be clear, i wasn’t saying that the plant was non-native simply because it was included in the noxious weed lists of those states. i was saying that the variety found in those states was shown as non-native, as you can see here:

that said, i did some additional digging, and it does look like the particular variety noted above (C. e. leptostachyus) is likely to be native, based on a molecular analysis survey from 2015:

in other words, it looks like the USDA and FNA native/introduced maps are incorrect, and so my earlier notes are incorrect.

(it looks like the position of the word “introduced” in this text may have been the original source of the problem: i think it should be interpreted as saying that the variety was introduced only to Europe, but because the US states are listed after, it may have been taken to suggest that the variety was also introduced to the US. and so many other references online – ex. – are probably also incorrect.)

so let me try to answer this again:

based on the recent molecular analysis (, it looks like the C. e. leptostachyus, C. e. macrostachyus, and C. e. hermannii are native to the “New World”, and C. e. esculentus is native to the “Old World”. C. e. sativus is the cultivated variety, and it originates in the Old World. it looks like the New World / Old World split occurred many millions of years ago, probably via “nuts” that floated across the Atlantic, and it looks like the earliest members of the species would have come from Africa.

C. e. leptostachyus is what you’ll find in most of the US. C. e. hermannii and C. e. macrostachyus are found in the US mostly in the south.

C. e. esculentus and C. e. sativus have also made it to the New World. it looks like C. e. sativus is less hardy in general (and so less weedy) than its wild cousins, and it looks like the introduction of C. e. esculentus was relatively recent and so it may be too early to judge exactly what kind of impact it’ll have in the long run here. (if it does end up spreading, i think it would be fair to say it would be invasive in the conservation sense of non-native + aggressive.)

it looks like C. e. leptostachyus and C. e. macrostachyus made it to the Old World and have been causing issues there, especially since C. e. leptostachyus is more cold-hardy than the other varieties. (these New World varieties definitely are invasive in every sense over in the Old World.)


The “I” stands for “introduced”, not “invasive”.


My mistake, I’ve seen that assumption made often.

I’m a bit skeptical.

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