I’m not familiar with the salticid fauna in the US but I have a bit of experience with salticids in Europe. The species that we have here are almost all habitat specialists. There are a few species which have habitat preferences that can also be met in urban areas and which are therefore also synanthropic. But the majority of species can only be found in specific habitats. Therefore, you might run out of new species rather quickly around your home. Good places to look for synathropic species are house walls and wooden structures such as fences or wooden sheds. You might also find some tree-dwellers or low-vegetation-dwellers in urban areas.
Generally jumping spiders like it warm and dry (at least in the temperate zone). Sunny and exposed areas are very good places to look for them. From late morning until late afternoon is the best to look for them because then there will be generally less humidity and higher temperatures. I cannot support the comment that it’s best to look for them in the morning and evening. Atleast in Euope they are most active in the midst of day. Right after rain showers you might not have much luck to find them because they retreat. Looking for them in dry conditions (a couple of days without precipitation is best) increases the chances of finding them. You can find them almost everywhere (grass, stones, rocks, bushes, trees, barren ground, sand, dunes, leaf litter, under stones or dead wood, between pebbles, at the edge of rivers, mountainous areas, wetland areas… the list is endless, but it always depends on the species you are looking for). The more diverse the habitats that you are searching in the more species you will find.
When you look for jumpers it’s good to be slow. Walk around slowly and observe the ground in front of you. You might cause them to move/jump and that’s when they’re easiest to spot. Many species like to sit in exposed places like on top of stones which makes it rather easy to spot them. If you think you found a place that looks promising for certain species then just kneel or sit down and observe the environment. It might take a few minutes for them to start moving and that’s when you can see them easier. Staring at tree bark can also reveal some very well camouflaged species. From my experience so far it’s pretty tough to spot tree-dwelling species. A beating sheet can be handy to beat some species from branches. Some species are very easy to find that way but if you would just look for them with your eye it’s almost impossible.
My best advice to learn about them is by going out and just doing it. You can read and watch so much but in the end it’s the experience that is needed. In the 3 years that I’m focusing more and more on jumping spiders it helped me most to just observe them in the field. That’s how you learn best about the populations and species in your area. I found a few places this way which have entire populations of certain species. So, whenever I go there I can be almost certain to find them. Going to the same places many times also helps to learn under which conditions you find which species. Some species are active very early in the year but you won’t find them later on. Or you will only find males/females/juveniles at certain times in the year. The more time you spent out there the more you will learn to recognize their movement pattern which makes it easier to find them, too (except the ant-mimics, though). If your brain is trained for these patterns it’s much easier to differentiate jumping spiders from all the other critters that run around in the same place and which might distract you. For the European species you also don’t find detailed information about the lifestyle of jumping spider species. I guess that might also be true for the American species. I already found species in habitats and places which are not mentioned in literature to be favored habitats and places for these species. When you know where and how they hibernate you can even find jumpers in winter.
There is also a nice video on youtube by one of the leading jumping spider experts. It’s quite entertaining and might help you out, too. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZ1P_3fHtPk
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If you like to look at jumping spider pictures I can recommend @bfmacro on instagram. I have lots of jumping spider pictures in my gallery and in my older posts I also wrote a few more details about the species. I’m not doing that so much anymore since it feels as if I would just be repeating myself over and over.
Good luck in your quest. Be patient, though, it takes time.