Peregrine Falcon

Why does the peregrine Falcon have a large distribution around the globe?

Yes it does.

Look at the taxon page here, at the Map and under “About”:

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/4647-Falco-peregrinus

which includes the Wikipedia article about this bird.

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They’re highly migratory in many parts of their range, and they’re capable of flying across rather large bodies of water, even hunting and eating on the wing.

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It’s using the niche of a large falcon, and there’re only a few of those all closely related, so it has less competition throughout its range, I think more relevant question is why it’s not evolved in multiple species (though it depends on your view of taxonomy of Middle East falcons), maybe because it’s quite young and all of its subspecies are still too similar to each other. You can see a similar example in Ospreys, but they’re for more migratory than Peregrine falcons who don’t quite migrate in temperate regions.

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I think the question was why, not if it does or not.

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You are right!

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