Don’t know about English names, but here garden flowers will often have the same exact name as latin one, just checking the Asteraceae: Telekia, Calendula, Galinsoga, Jacobaea, Cyclachaena, Aster, Rudbeckia, Psephellus, Ixeridium, Amberboa, Chrysanthemum, etc.
And it’s all without taking in mind plant names where common name is just a translated latin name, there’re thousands of those!
Ooh I’ve got a few (though I feel like most of these cases are cases where there’s multiple common names, one of which is the genus name)
Trillium - While they do have other common names (toadshade, wake-robin, etc) I feel like most people I hear just say trillium
Viola - Yeah yeah, they go by violets or pansies too, but I heard Viola used a lot as a kid too. Probably doesn’t hurt that both of my grandmothers were named viola
Junco - full name dark-eyed Junco, but no one ever says that man, they just call the little dudes Junco
Geranium, Crocus, Iris, Rhododendron, Lantana and Phlox don’t even really need elaboration
I feel like there’s absolute gobs of mushroom species where the common name is just a small descriptor tacked on to the genus name - Amanita, Russula, Mycena, Galerina, Cortinarius, Suillus all come to mind
There’s an interesting case where the common name of a moth species on iNat is the same as its scientific name, except that the two names are switched around. I am reffering to the Hemerophila diva moth, whose common name is known as Diva Hemerophila.
These don’t have English names? It’s unusual for big shrooms, Amanita is fly-killer, Russula is “fresh edible”, Suilius is “oiler”, the latter two being regularly eaten, there must be a name for them before the binominals.
It depends on the specific one; the more iconic ones tend to have unique names (So like Fly Agaric for Amanita muscaria, or Destroying Angel for a few different species in section phalloideae, or Chicken Fat Mushroom for Suillus americana) but then you’ll get something like the Springtime Amanita, Amanita velosa, or the Dotted-Stalk Suillus Suillus Granulatus, or the Green Quilt Russula Russula virosa
I have no clue if these common names came after the binomial or before, though. Or if they just kind of evolved together.